News

How Fat Turns to Muscle Through Exercise

By Maire,

How Exercise Changes Fat and Muscle Cells

BY: Gretchen ReynoldsNY Times

Exercise promotes health, reducing most people’s risks of developing diabetes and growing obese. But just how, at a cellular level, exercise performs this beneficial magic — what physiological steps are involved and in what order — remains mysterious to a surprising degree.

Several striking new studies, however, provide some clarity by showing that exercise seems able to drastically alter how genes operate.

Genes are, of course, not static. They turn on or off, depending on what biochemical signals they receive from elsewhere in the body. When they are turned on, genes express various proteins that, in turn, prompt a range of physiological actions in the body.

One powerful means of affecting gene activity involves a process called methylation, in which methyl groups, a cluster of carbon and hydrogen atoms, attach to the outside of a gene and make it easier or harder for that gene to receive and respond to messages from the body. In this way, the behavior of the gene is changed, but not the fundamental structure of the gene itself. Remarkably, these methylation patterns can be passed on to offspring – a phenomenon known as epigenetics.

What is particularly fascinating about the methylation process is that it seems to be driven largely by how you live your life. Many recent studies have found that diet, for instance, notably affects the methylation of genes, and scientists working in this area suspect that differing genetic methylation patterns resulting from differing diets may partly determine whether someone develops diabetes and other metabolic diseases.

But the role of physical activity in gene methylation has been poorly understood, even though exercise, like diet, greatly changes the body. So several groups of scientists recently set out to determine what working out does to the exterior of our genes.

The answer, their recently published results show, is plenty.

Of the new studies, perhaps the most tantalizing, conducted principally by researchers affiliated with the Lund University Diabetes Centre in Sweden and published last month in PLoS One, began by recruiting several dozen sedentary but generally healthy adult Swedish men and sucking out some of their fat cells. Using recently developed molecular techniques, the researchers mapped the existing methylation patterns on the DNA within those cells. They also measured the men’s body composition, aerobic capacity, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels and similar markers of health and fitness.

Then they asked the men to start working out. Under the guidance of a trainer, the volunteers began attending hourlong spinning or aerobics classes approximately twice a week for six months. By the end of that time, the men had shed fat and inches around their waists, increased their endurance and improved their blood pressure and cholesterol profiles.

Less obviously, but perhaps even more consequentially, they also had altered the methylation pattern of many of the genes in their fat cells. In fact, more than 17,900 individual locations on 7,663 separate genes in the fat cells now displayed changed methylation patterns. In most cases, the genes had become more methylated, but some had fewer methyl groups attached. Both situations affect how those genes express proteins.

The genes showing the greatest change in methylation also tended to be those that had been previously identified as playing some role in fat storage and the risk for developing diabetes or obesity.

“Our data suggest that exercise may affect the risk for Type 2 diabetes and obesity by changing DNA methylation of those genes,” says Charlotte Ling, an associate professor at Lund University and senior author of the study.

Meanwhile, other studies have found that exercise has an equally profound effect on DNA methylation within human muscle cells, even after a single workout.

To reach that conclusion, scientists from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm and other institutions took muscle biopsies from a group of sedentary men and women and mapped their muscle cells’ methylation patterns. They then had the volunteers ride stationary bicycles until they had burned about 400 calories. Some rode strenuously, others more easily.

Afterward, a second muscle biopsy showed that DNA methylation patterns in the muscle cells were already changing after that lone workout, with some genes gaining methyl groups and some losing them. Several of the genes most altered, as in the fat cell study, are known to produce proteins that affect the body’s metabolism, including the risk for diabetes and obesity.

Interestingly, the muscle cell methylation changes were far more pronounced among the volunteers who had ridden vigorously than in those who had pedaled more gently, even though their total energy output was the same.

The overarching implication of the study’s findings, says Juleen Zierath, a professor of integrative physiology at the Karolinska Institute and senior author of the study, is that DNA methylation changes are probably “one of the earliest adaptations to exercise” and drive the bodily changes that follow.

Of course, the intricacies of that bogglingly complex process have yet to be fully teased out. Scientists do not know, for instance, whether exercise-induced methylation changes linger if someone becomes sedentary, or if resistance training has similar effects on the behavior of genes. Nor is it known whether these changes might be passed on from one generation to the next. But already it is clear, Dr. Ling says, that these new findings “are additional proof of the robust effect exercise can have on the human body, even at the level of our DNA.”

Fit Radio Success Story – Meet JT M.

By Maire,

I’m a physical educator/coach and I’ve been teaching Physical Education for 17 years in Texas. I was at a conference in early June and another teacher told me they had read about Fit Radio and it might be a good app for us to use and safe to play for the kids.

After my 3 hour trial ran out I was SUPER sad! When I figured out that Fit Radio was $28 for the year I decided it was worth the investment. I’ve had Spotify Premium before, but felt like it was a little expensive. I don’t normally buy a year’s subscription to anything yet alone pay for a music service, but Fit Radio was SO dramatically different than anything I had used before.

Since July, I have deleted Spotify and Pandora.

Maybe it’s my ADD, but I like Fit Radio–even just to enjoy music–not necessarily for working out, but all the time.

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I plan tell our teachers about Fit Radio because it’s the perfect fit. You can safely play continuous music with clean lyrics without pauses or ads, you can start/stop whenever you want, and there are plenty of genres/mixes/etc. to choose from.

I also plan to use it for my after-school teacher workouts that I do for my staff members. I’m always genuinely excited to play Fit Radio during these classes because I know they will most likely ask what app I’m using. They agree, nothing is more annoying than using Spotify and having an ad interrupt a workout.

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Every Summer I try to find a few new games/activities/strategies for my gym – this year Fit Radio is at the top of my list!
Music is HUGE in my gym/classroom so Fit Radio is something that I need everyday.

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Do you love Fit Radio? Tell us about your experience for your chance to be featured! Click here to learn how.

Fit Radio unlocks the key to the perfect running mix.

By Lexi Donald,

~ A runner’s dream come true, new Fit Radio Running Mixes are curated to give just the type of song you want exactly when you need it ~

The professional DJs and trainers behind Fit Radio, the #1 workout music app, have teamed up to create the ultimate running playlists that will help push runners beyond their limits and make the running experience more enjoyable.

This isn’t your old Pandora or Spotify playlist where one song simply plays after another. Fit Radio‘s Running Mixes are like nothing else out there. Remember those times you spent hours on the dance floor? That’s what Fit Radio is about to bring to your run!

The secret is in the layout of the mix and the driving beats that match your footfalls.

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With the new Auto Detection feature, you will begin running while Fit Radio detects your pace. Once detected, Fit Radio will play a mix that matches your footfalls perfectly. The running mixes are open format, which means they will take you on a journey through a span of genres and continuously surprise you. Every song has been scanned for key, pace, beat, and a number of other criteria to ensure it is the perfect song for running.

After months of planning and creating, the makeup of each mix is designed to follow a breakthrough formula.

In the first 10 minutes of your Fit Radio Running Mix, you will hear popular songs you know and love to help get you to your first mile – you’ll probably even hear a cool new remix of your favorite song making the music feel fresh. You can expect to forget the fact that you’re running because you’re preoccupied with singing along – and probably even adding some dance moves to your trot.

The next 10 minutes, when your mind begins to wander, is where Fit Radio brings the thunder. All of a sudden, the DJ drops in those hard hitting tracks that push you and make you want to slap someone because you’re so amped up (every runner can relate to this at some point!).

 

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Now that you’ve achieved your runner’s high, at the 30-minute mark the mix will transition into more fun, upbeat music. This is where you’ll hear those awesome throwbacks and awe-inspiring remixes you’ve never heard before. You definitely won’t want to stop now – you’ll be having too much fun reminiscing and enjoying that runner’s high.

Once you get to the 40-minute mark, you’ll begin to feel a sense of euphoria over the fact that you’ve kept your pace for so long and have had such an enjoyable time running. At this point, the DJ will transition into something with a good flow and continuous beat that allows you to cool down a little and focus on your breathing.

And just like that, you’ve hit a new milestone. You’ve run further, faster, longer – and perhaps you didn’t even intend to. That’s Fit Radio’s number one mission; to push you beyond your goals!

The app has over 100 real nightclub DJs and adds new mixes daily, so you will always hear something new and surprising for your run and your workout. Learn more at www.fitradio.com or try it now for free by downloading the app in iTunes or Google Play.

Love is in the Air

By superadmin,

So, I’m not sure if you’ve noticed, but FIT Radio has been getting quite a bit of support/mentions from a bunch of bloggers out in cyber space. Here are the latest FIT Radio mentions and we couldn’t be happier, because it’s not everyday you get love from a fitness model AND a major workout equipment manufacturer!